More than 30 languages are spoken in Afghanistan. , Here is an exemplary list of Pure Pashto and borrowings:, There a lot of old vocabulary that have been replaced by borrowings e.g. Dari and Pashtu, written with Arabic letters, are Afghanistan's official languages. In Pakistan, Pashto is the first language of 15% of its population (as of 1998), mainly in the northwestern province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and northern districts of Balochistan province. The velars /k, ɡ, x, ɣ/ followed by the close back rounded vowel /u/ assimilate into the labialized velars [kʷ, ɡʷ, xʷ, ɣʷ]. Johannes Christian Meyer-Ingwersen. In fact, most homes have exclusive collections of poetry. Keith Brown / Sarah Ogilvie (eds.). 1966. In: Tariq Rahman. , Other communities of Pashto speakers are found in India, Tajikistan, and northeastern Iran (primarily in South Khorasan Province to the east of Qaen, near the Afghan border). Standard Pashto's vocabulary, however, also derives from Southern Pashto. It's unclear which reference is inaccurate, the text or the map? t͡ʃe d̪ɑ nor ʈo.pəˈn me bo.liˈ gram pə t͡sə, Transliteration: Zə Rahmā́n pə xpə́la gram yəm če mayán yəm Actually a variety of Persian that is spoken in Afghanistan, Dari is sometimes called Dari Persian or Afghan Persian. In areas where the majority of the population speaks a third national language alongside the two official ones, such as the Turkic languages Uzbek, Turkmen or Balochi, Pashai, Nuristani and Pamiri, these are also local official languages. Pata Khazana claims to contain an anthology of Pashto poets from the early Ghurid period up to the Hotak period in the eighteenth century.. Elsevier, Oxford: 2009. With this Islamophobia comes general stereotyping, that everyone who lives in the Middle East is Muslim and hates the U.S. and speaks Arabic. In: Other sources note 1933, i.e. Turkmen is also a Turkic language and is the official language of Turkmenistan. Pashto is the second most common language in Pakistan as well. It is known in Persian literature as Afghani (افغانی, Afghāni). Modarresi, Yahya: "Iran, Afghanistan and Tadjikistan, 1911–1916." The media coverage in the U.S. tends to paint it as a country full of Muslim extremists who are more or less grouped in with the rest of the countries in the Middle East where conflicts are going on. What scholars agree on is the fact that Pashto is an Eastern Iranian language sharing characteristics with Eastern Middle Iranian languages such as Khwarezmian and Sogdian. , Strabo, who lived between 64 BC and 24 CE, explains that the tribes inhabiting the lands west of the Indus River were part of Ariana.  Each variety is further divided into a number of dialects. Persian poetry is a very important part of Afghan culture. Pashto , sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language of the Indo-European family. کله غورځوې واکمن له پلازونو When data is available, the languages spoken in each country are broken down according to the percent of the total population speaking each language as a first language. D.N.
It is also pronounced as sometimes /ʝ/ in Bati Kot according to the findings of D.W Coyle.. Spooner, Bryan: "Are we teaching Persian?" Official Languages of Afghanistan. These additional languages, according to the constitution, are considered official third languages wherever the majority of people speak them. It is also spoken in parts of Mianwali and Attock districts of the Punjab province, areas of Gilgit-Baltistan and in Islamabad, as well as by Pashtuns who live in different cities throughout the country. How We Are Helping with the Refugee Crisis.  Pata Khazana is a Pashto manuscript claimed to be written by Mohammad Hotak under the patronage of the Pashtun emperor Hussain Hotak in Kandahar. Lorenz, Manfred. Afghanistan is a country of incredible linguistic diversity. In such areas, children who have these languages as their mother tongue are entitled to schooling in their home language. Email ( required; will not be published ).
Pashto employs the Pashto alphabet, a modified form of the Perso-Arabic alphabet or Arabic script. Afghanistan has two official and widely spoken languages: Dari, also known as Afghan Persian, and Pashto.
There are also Christians and people who practice other religions in these countries, and they do not all speak Arabic. Modern Pashto-speaking communities are found in the cities of Karachi and Hyderabad in Sindh. There are an estimated 2,000 Zoroastrians in modern Afgh… Though once a reasonably peaceful country, in the past 20 years or so it has been ravaged by civil war and occupation by other countries. Nawabullah Yar Khan, another son of Hafiz Rahmat Khan, in 1808 wrote a book of Pashto words entitled ʿAjāyib al-Lughāt ("Wonders of Languages").
In particular, the retroflex fricatives, which represent the original pronunciation of these sounds, are preserved in the South Western dialects (especially the prestige dialect of Kandahar), while they are pronounced as palatal fricatives in the North Western dialects.
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